Why the sudden push toward blockchain? For the financial industry, the belief is that it'll lead to faster processing times, a more secure transaction, and lower fees. Whereas traditional banking networks can take up to five business days to validate a cross-border transaction, blockchain might be able to accomplish the same feat in a matter of seconds.
High speed rail Short distance flights In almost every market where high speed rail with journey times of two hours or less was introduced in competition with an air service, the air service was either greatly reduced within a few years or ceased entirely. Even in markets with longer rail travel times, airlines have reduced the amount of flights on offer and passenger numbers have gone down. Examples include the Barcelona-Madrid high speed railway, the Cologne Frankfurt high speed railway (where no direct flights are available as of 2016) or the Paris-London connection after the opening of High Speed 1. For medium-distance trips, like between Beijing & Shanghai, the high speed rail and airlines often end up in extremely stiff competition.
"You've got Fitbit, Apple Watch, all this consumer tech collecting data on your blood pressure, heart rate, etc," said Forde. "Then you go to the hospital or your doctor and they have their own system. You see the allergist and they've got their own system, and none of it is connected. If there's no interoperability between any of these systems, how are you going to get the best possible care?"
When texting first came to phones (during the era of keypad phones), it was a chore. Early adopters’ thumbs learned the keypads of these primitive phones by feel and mastered the Multi-Tap and T9 (“Texting on 9 Keys”) to send texts rapidly. Successive phones added full keyboards and eventually the fully featured touchscreen. Once texting hit the smartphone age, it really changed the way many people use their phones. The length and frequency of voice calls dropped way off and even email changed, becoming seen as more the province of business. Social media messaging made simple non-voice communication even more powerful, with Facebook’s Messenger and WhatsApp taking the texting framework and creating a faster and more flexible user experience. Then, when Snapchat created its self-destructing messages, it added a layer of urgency to instant communication. Now messaging in its many forms — via social media, encrypted apps, or through text — is a primary means people use to communicate, emojis and all.
Bob spread his spreadsheet diary over 5,000 computers, which were  all over the world. These computers are called nodes. Every time a transaction occurs it has to be approved by the nodes, each of whom checks its validity. Once every node has checked a transaction there is a sort of electronic vote, as some nodes may think the transaction is valid and others think it is a fraud.
Brian Forde, Director of Digital Currency at the MIT Media Lab, likens public versus private blockchains to the relationship between an open-source technology, such as Linux, and companies like Red Hat that build on that tech for enterprise use. Public blockchains like Bitcoin were the open-source movement that started it all, and private blockchains such as R3 are taking that technology and commercializing it for businesses.
Augmented reality tech blends digital images and information with the “real world.” Google’s less-than-successful Glass tried, years ago, to augment user’s realities but fell short. Yelp’s Monocle feature allows users to peer through their smartphones and see information about businesses around them, which is cool, but not life-changing. A watershed moment in augmented reality came in 2016, when Pokemon Go took the world by storm, filling it with AR monsters that sent eager fans out on the hunt. High-profile startups like Magic Leap are betting big on VR and AR taking on larger and larger roles in an increasingly connected, digitally-backed world.
Covered disruptive technologies include blockchain and bitcoin, artificial intelligence, holography, 3D pirnting, and nanotechnology. In order to understand and evaluate the impact of these technologies, as well as to respond appropriately, a system is required that is explained in detail. The proposed system considers the following key points: Technology that can give specific solutions to a problem, Behavior since this problem impacts people, and Data as crucial to make intelligent decisions. This TBD system can help corporations maintain long-term success. The author provides a guide to decision making, investment suggestions, practical implementation tips, and embrace the Millennial generation as a fundamental human resource.
The key to navigating the volatility and looking past the noise? First and foremost, understand that Bitcoin (and other cryptocurrencies) isn’t the same thing as blockchain. Blockchain is the underlying digital record system that makes Bitcoin “work.” It powers other digital currencies, too, and is being increasingly used in other ways, such as improving cloud storage or keeping track of legal documents. As such, blockchain should be around in the future even if Bitcoin itself falls off the radar.
It's not just the currency's stomach-churning volatility that turns some people off from investing in bitcoin. The lack of regulation or palpable value behind the currency causes many people to consider bitcoin somewhat akin to Monopoly money. On the other hand, the blockchain technology behind bitcoin has a chance to be disruptive across so many different industries and investors might be more willing to get behind that.
Because it uses a peer-to-peer network, copies of the ledger are stored in many different locations, and unless you manage to track down every single one of them (Bitcoin is estimated to have over 35,000 nodes in its P2P network), you can’t destroy it. As well, because so many different, independent nodes are keeping track of the ledger, modifying it in an untrustworthy way won’t go very far because all the other nodes will disagree with that transaction and won’t add it to the ledger.

"The state is completely reimagining how it stores and distributes public records to its citizens. Land and property titling, licensing, birth and death certificates, automobile VIN numbers, heavy machinery and luxury good registrations, all these things are being incorporated into Symbiont's technology stack behind the Delaware blockchain," said Smith. "Distributed ledger technology is not a silver bullet—it's not going to solve every problem—but it does solve some very big ones.


Along with a rapidly expanding user base, Bitcoin is now being considered by a number of financial services companies. Paramount among the benefits offered by cryptocurrency is the ability to reduce the cost of transferring funds, particularly on a global scale. The impact of Bitcoin, and the technology behind it, on the finance industry has been likened to the disruption that the Internet caused on the music and publishing industries. (For related reading, see: The Future of Cryptocurrency.)
This article is part of an effort to capture the state of the art. We begin by exploring the basic tenets of disruptive innovation and examining whether they apply to Uber. Then we point out some common pitfalls in the theory’s application, how these arise, and why correctly using the theory matters. We go on to trace major turning points in the evolution of our thinking and make the case that what we have learned allows us to more accurately predict which businesses will grow.

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The posture of today’s leading disk-drive makers toward the newest disruptive technology, 1.8-inch drives, is eerily familiar. Each of the industry leaders has designed one or more models of the tiny drives, and the models are sitting on shelves. Their capacity is too low to be used in notebook computers, and no one yet knows where the initial market for 1.8-inch drives will be. Fax machines, printers, and automobile dashboard mapping systems are all candidates. “There just isn’t a market,” complained one industry executive. “We’ve got the product, and the sales force can take orders for it. But there are no orders because nobody needs it. It just sits there.” This executive has not considered the fact that his sales force has no incentive to sell the 1.8-inch drives instead of the higher-margin products it sells to higher-volume customers. And while the 1.8-inch drive is sitting on the shelf at his company and others, last year more than $50 million worth of 1.8-inch drives were sold, almost all by start-ups. This year, the market will be an estimated $150 million.
In his book, Christensen points out that large corporations are designed to work with sustaining technologies. They excel at knowing their market, staying close to their customers, and having a mechanism in place to develop existing technology. Conversely, they have trouble capitalizing on the potential efficiencies, cost-savings, or new marketing opportunities created by low-margin disruptive technologies. Using real-world examples to illustrate his point, Christensen demonstrates how it is not unusual for a big corporation to dismiss the value of a disruptive technology because it does not reinforce current company goals, only to be blindsided as the technology matures, gains a larger audience and market share and threatens the status quo.
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